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BESS Energy storage system development five years

Storage Lithium Batteries     2022-01-05
 
Policies support the development of the energy storage industry. Many countries at home and abroad have implemented a number of policies to promote and encourage the development of energy storage. From 2017 to 2021, benefiting from the electricity price pricing system, the difference in energy structure, and appropriate government subsidies, energy storage at home and abroad has developed rapidly. In July 2021, China proposed that the domestic installed capacity will reach 30 million kilowatts or more by 2025, and the full market-oriented development of new energy storage will be achieved by 2030, and favorable policies will continue to be introduced.
 
From the perspective of the technical route, electrochemical energy storage has been commercialized, or become the focus of future development, among which lithium iron phosphate will become the mainstream technology direction, and sodium ion batteries may become the follow-up technology direction. Due to low cost, long lifespan, and mature technology, physical and mechanical energy storage, especially pumped energy storage, is widely used, but the development is gradually slowed down by the constraints of geographical environment, high investment, and long construction period; integrated electromagnetic energy storage and photothermal energy storage High efficiency, but still in the technology development stage, electrochemical energy storage is cost-effective, and has entered the commercialization stage. With the gradual decrease in cost, we believe that electrochemical energy storage-lithium ion batteries will be the main application type of energy storage.
 
From the perspective of electrochemical energy storage batteries in 2015-2020, lithium-ion batteries, especially lithium iron phosphate batteries, are the most cost-effective technology in terms of safety, energy density, cost, and development path. According to estimates, lithium iron phosphate in 2021 Energy storage has reached a system cost of 1.5 yuan/Wh. The inflection point of energy storage economy has arrived. With the further reduction of battery costs and BOS costs, a huge potential market has been opened.
 
Sodium batteries have low cost, and their cycle life needs to be improved, or they may become the future direction of technology. Sodium batteries realize material system innovation, and the research will gradually mature in 2021. As the sodium ion reserve is 420 times the lithium reserve, the reserve is abundant and the price is low. The theoretical Bom cost can be reduced by 30%-40% compared with lithium batteries, and the sodium battery has better safety, high and low temperature, and fast charging performance, so it is in the energy storage market Have a broad application space. However, the cycle life and energy density of sodium batteries are lower than those of lithium batteries, generally around 1,000 cycles. The first-generation sodium battery released by Ningde at the end of July 2021 can reach more than 3,000 cycles. We estimate that if the cycle number is increased to 4500 Second, it is more economical.
 
"New energy + hydrogen storage" is the general direction of future energy development. Hydrogen energy has high energy density and low operation and maintenance costs. It can be applied to energy storage for extremely short or extremely long periods of time. It is a rare form of energy storage that can store more than hundreds of GWh. It is considered a new type of large Large-scale energy storage technology. The construction cost of hydrogen power generation is only US$580/kW, which is much lower than photovoltaic, wind energy, natural gas, oil and other methods. The energy density is more than three times that of other fossil fuels. direction. The hydrogen energy industry chain includes hydrogen production, storage and transportation, hydrogen refueling, and hydrogen energy applications. In 2021, many companies have begun to deploy the hydrogen energy and hydrogen storage industry chain.
 
From the perspective of the energy storage industry chain, the battery and inverter link system costs accounted for the highest proportions, at 60% and 20%, respectively. This is the high-prosperity direction of the industry chain. Related companies are expected to fully benefit from the industry dividend. From the results of elasticity calculations, the inverter link has greater flexibility than lithium batteries. The energy storage system is a comprehensive energy control system with a battery as the core. It mainly includes batteries, EMS (energy management system), BMS (battery management system), PCS (two-way converter) and other parts. Among them, the battery is the core of the energy storage system, accounting for about 67% of the cost. In 2021 Lithium batteries mainly include lithium iron phosphate and ternary batteries. BMS is mainly responsible for battery monitoring, evaluation, protection and balancing; energy management system (EMS) is responsible for data collection, network monitoring and energy scheduling, etc.; energy storage converter (PCS) can control the charging and discharging process of energy storage battery packs , Perform AC-DC conversion.
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