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Which is better than lithium titanate battery, lithium iron phosphate and ternary lithium battery?

Storage Lithium Batteries     2022-01-07
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At present, mainstream new energy vehicles in my country mainly use lithium iron phosphate or ternary power lithium batteries as the cathode material. Both have their own advantages in the fields of new energy passenger cars and new energy passenger vehicles. So, which lithium titanate battery is better than lithium iron phosphate and ternary batteries?
 
This starts with the performance of the three batteries. As we all know, the performance of lithium-ion batteries is mainly determined by the positive electrode, negative electrode, electrolyte and separator. The positive and negative electrode materials have an important influence on the key indicators of the battery, such as capacity, energy density, cycle life, safety, rate performance, and cost.
 
Although using ternary as the positive electrode material, the lithium titanate battery has broken the traditional battery technology route with graphene as the negative electrode and changed to lithium titanate as the negative electrode material, which makes it a different kind in the eyes of its peers. But it is the characteristics of lithium titanate that make the battery of this material have outstanding characteristics.
 
Taking lithium iron phosphate-graphene, ternary-graphene, and ternary-lithium titanate as examples, lithium titanate batteries are at a disadvantage in terms of energy density alone. The Northeast Securities Research Report pointed out that the current specific energy of lithium iron phosphate batteries is 100-120Wh/kg, and the ternary battery is 150-200Wh/kg. The nickel-cobalt-aluminum ternary battery used by TSLA reaches 252Wh/kg. The Yinlong lithium-ion titanate battery is only 90Wh/kg, which is only half of that of some graphite-based anode material batteries.
 
In terms of cost, lithium titanate batteries have no advantage. Currently, Yinlong titanate lithium ion battery raw materials include titanium hydroxide and lithium hydroxide, and their prices are higher than graphite anode materials. According to the survey results of my country's battery network, the current cost of lithium iron phosphate and ternary batteries is 1100 yuan/kwh-1200 yuan/kwh, while the cost of lithium titanate batteries is about 2-3 times that of ternary batteries.
 
The energy density is twice as low and the cost is 2-3 times higher. How can lithium titanate batteries participate in market competition? Obviously, it is its own unique advantages that have moved some people in the industry.
 
First of all, considering the most important safety indicators of batteries, lithium titanate stands out.
 
When lithium titanate is used as a negative electrode material, the potential platform is as high as 1.55V, which is more than 1V higher than the traditional graphite negative electrode material. Although some energy density is lost, it also means that the battery is safer. Technical expert Lu Languang once said that the negative electrode voltage requirement is relatively low when the battery is charged quickly, but if it is too low, the lithium ion battery will easily precipitate very active metallic lithium. This lithium ion not only conducts electricity, but also reacts with the electrolyte. Then it releases heat and flammable gas appears, causing a fire. The higher 1V voltage of lithium titanate prevents the negative electrode voltage from being zero, which indirectly prevents the precipitation of lithium ions, thereby ensuring the safety of the battery.
 
Since the lithium titanate battery can be used safely in both high and low temperature environments, it also reflects its important advantage of wide temperature resistance (especially low temperature resistance). At present, the safe working temperature range of Yinlong lithium titanate battery is between -50°C and 65°C, while the energy of ordinary graphite negative battery starts to decay when the temperature is lower than -20°C, and the charging capacity is only at -30°C. It is 14% of the total charging capacity, so it can't work normally in severe cold weather.
 
In addition, even if the lithium titanate battery is overcharged, there is only a 1% volume change, which is called a zero-strain material, which makes it have an extremely long life. Yinlong's chairman Wei Yincang once said that Yinlong's lithium-ion titanate battery has a lifespan of up to 30 years, which is equivalent to the life of a car, while the average life of ordinary graphite anode material batteries is only 3-4 years. From the perspective of the full life cycle, the cost of lithium-ion titanate batteries is lower.
 
The last advantage of lithium titanate is its fast charge-discharge capability and high charge rate. At present, the charging rate of Yinlong lithium-ion titanate battery is 10C or even 20C, while the battery charging rate of ordinary graphite anode materials is only 2C-4C.
 
Based on these technical characteristics of lithium titanate batteries, the industry believes that it meets the needs of new energy buses and large-scale energy storage equipment. Take a bus as an example. Generally, a single trip has a mileage of no more than 40 kilometers, and it takes at least a few minutes each time the terminal enters the station and waits until the next departure. At this time, the disadvantage of low energy density of lithium titanate batteries will not affect the use of passenger cars, but instead reflects the benefits of fast charging of batteries. As a means of public transportation, buses have put forward higher requirements on the safety and durability of batteries.
 
For more information about zetarapower please reach out Zetara Power at lisa@zetarapower.com
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